Length attribute does not controls the size of the input-box.
For changing input-box size, you need to override the search template for text field.
Copy the file
Root => components => com_joomprofile => libraries => fields => text => templates => field.text.search.php
Root => templates => YourTemplate => html => com_joomprofile => field.text.search.php
and make the changes in this file.
You can put style="display:inline;" to place element in same line.
Apart from that you can adjust size of the input-box by applying appropriate width like style="width:100px;"